China Government Employee Database – Qing (CGED-Q) 中国历史官员量化数据库(清代)

Links for downloading the publicly released 1900-1912 data are below.

Searching for a specific official by name? Please see our Jinshenlu search page

In 2013, Cameron Campbell (康文林), James Lee (李中清), Yuxue Ren (任玉雪) and their collaborators initiated a new project to study Qing educational and political elites and the Qing bureaucracy by constructing and analyzing a longitudinal individual-level database from the surviving editions of the jinshenlu (縉紳錄) that covers nearly all civil offices and their holders. At the micro-level, the study examines how geographic origin, mode of appointment, family background, and other characteristics of government employees during the Qing (1644-1911) dynasty influenced individual career trajectories. For mode of appointment, we distinguish officials according to whether they entered service by examination qualification, office purchase, or by virtue of hereditary affiliation with the Eight Banner system. By linkage to other sources, we also examine the role of family background and exam performance. At the macro-level we examine changes over time in the composition of the bureaucracy and of specific ministries and agencies. We assess the implications of key developments during the Qing for the  structure and composition of the state. While our analysis mainly relies on traditional quantitative methods, in recent years we have been collaborating with colleagues and students in computer science on visualization and computational approaches.

This study is distinctive in that previous studies of officials and other government employees have mainly been case studies of specific individuals or government offices. Larger scale studies have focused on examination qualification holders, and assumed that they represented the political elite. Studies of the bureaucracy, or specific ministries, have generally been institutional histories. To our knowledge, this is one of the first longitudinal studies of any national bureaucracy, contemporary or modern, in its entirety, using micro-data on the careers and family and geographic origins of nearly all officials.

Starting in spring 2019, we began making the data public in stages, in collaboration with the Institute of Qing History at Renmin University. Below we provide links to download sites at Renmin University and HKUST.

Please see our 2020 Journal of Chinese History article for a more detailed article-length introduction to the CGED-Q.



To carry out this study, we are constructing a database of government employees during the Qing, the China Government Employee Database – Qing (CGED-Q). Our core information come from the jinshenlu (缙绅录), a publication that appeared every three months and listed almost every civil office including information about the holder’s name, place of origin, ethnicity, location of post, job title, and other details. positions ranged from high offices in the Six Ministries (六部) and other central government units down to low-level offices in county administrations. Nominative linkage of the records of the same official in different editions has proven straightforward, allowing us to construct and study career histories. Each edition lists 13,000-15,000 employees. We are also entering lists of military officials from zhongshubeilan (中樞備覧). These editions typically record 7000-8000 military officials each.

Excludes positions only recorded in commercial editions or which are not recorded consistently in official or commercial editions.

The data we have entered so far spans the period between 1750 and 1912 and is most complete for the period 1830 to 1912. The figure to the left summarizes the record counts for civil offices between 1750 and 1912.

As of July 2020, we have entered 4,124,697 records of 345,071 officials for the period between 1760 and 1912. 3,606,301 are records of civil offices and 518,596 are records of military offices. These records are drawn from 257 jinshenlu editions and 66 zhongshubeilan editions.

We have also created a searchable database of most of the jinshenlu personnel records that we have already entered.  Right now it allows search by surname and given name in traditional characters. We hope that this is useful for anyone who may want to look up an ancestor’s personnel records, or for researchers who are interested in looking up the records of a specific officials. Here are more details about the search facility. Siwei Fu, a PhD student in Computer Science at HKUST, created the search site and has been updating it when we have provided new data. The site is kindly hosted on a server at Professor Huamin Qu’s VisGroup.

We published our first descriptive results in an article in Qingshi yanjiu (清史研究) in 2016. Please look at the abstract or download the full text, in Chinese. According to these initial results, a large share of the highest officials were actually from the Eight Banners, not holders of examination qualifications. The hereditary status of Eight Banner officials allowed them to enter service through channels other than the well-known examination system. Meanwhile, of the holders of the highest examination qualification, jinshi (進士), only a small fraction actually held high office. The vast majority of employed jinshi held much more mundane positions in the government.  Many surprisingly do not appear to have been been employed at all. Chen Bijia lead-authored a paper on Bannermen serving in Beijing between 1900-1912 which appeared in Qingshi yanjiu (清史研究) in 2018.

For additional information about the family origins and other characteristics of officials, we are constructing and linking databases from such other sources as timinglu (题名录), zhujuan (朱卷), tongnian chilu (同年齒錄) and other sources with the jinshenlu data. These sources provide names of ancestors, kin, teachers, and classmates. For ancestors, they provide examination qualifications. By linkage, we can trace whether ancestors were government employees. Some of these materials were available through the China Biographical Database Project, with whom we are cooperating. Huang Yifei, a Caltech PhD graduate, has kindly shared a large volume of 同年齿录 and 乡试录 that he had collected for his dissertation. We have also exchanged data with Professor Liu Cheng-yun and his group  at the Institute of History and Philology at the Academia Sinica.

Project History

The project was initially conceived in summer 2013, when Yuxue Ren (任玉雪)  at Shanghai Jiaotong University showed Cameron Campbell (康文林)  and James Lee (李中清) work she was doing with jinshenlu 缙绅录 records of government employees in northeast China. Campbell, with assistance from Lee and Ren, then obtained funding from the Hong Kong Research Grants Council for the 2014-2017 period to enter the 2.8 million 缙绅录 records reprinted by Tsinghua as the 清代縉紳錄集成 in order to study the Qing bureaucracy in its entirety. Bijia Chen, HKUST PhD student in Social Science, joined the project in 2015 with support from the Hong Kong PhD Funding Scheme. In addition to using the data for her dissertation on the careers of Qing officials 1850-1912, Bijia has played a key role in the coordination of the data entry and also has been updating the documentation of the data for public release. Lawrence Zhang, joined HKUST fall 2016 as an assistant professor in history and is working with the Lee-Campbell Group to compare data from lists of office purchasers he has collected from libraries in China including Taiwan to their data in the 缙绅录 and elsewhere.

Project meeting in April 2016

Data entry has been carried out since 2014 by a team of full-time coders, currently including Ge Xiaodong, Ji Yang, Ren Yubai,  Liu Beiyi, and Zhao Mi. Two other senior coders, Sun Huicheng and Xiao Xing, who were there at the inception of this project retired in early 2017 and 2019 respectively. We are very grateful to all of them for their commitment and perseverance.

January 2017 project meeting and retirement celebration for Sun Huicheng

We are also collaborating with the Institute for Qing History at Renmin University to release the CGED-Q publicly in phases, beginning in 2019 with the data from the New Administration 新政时期 period 1900-1912. The links for downloading these data are below. We have initiated a number of collaborative papers with various scholars coordinated partly with these data releases as well as with other funded projects.

We estimate that in addition to the 2.8 million jinshenlu 缙绅录 records reprinted by the Tsinghua University Library as the 清代縉紳錄集 成 that we have

July 2017 project meeting

already entered, there are an almost equal number of other records scattered in a variety of libraries. We have identified editions that should contain some 1.5 million records in holdings in the Columbia University Library, the Harvard Yenching Library, the Palace Museum Library in Beijing and other locations. We are very thankful to Columbia University, Harvard Yenching Library and the Library of Congress for making editions available online or by other means of access.


HK RGC GRF 16400114. Spatial, Temporal, and Social Network Influences on Officials’ Careers during the Qing: Creation and Analysis of a National Database from the Jin Shen Lu. 2014-2017 (Cameron Campbell PI).

HK RGC GRF 16601718. Family Background Influences on the Appointment and Career Mobility of Qing Officials With Examination Degrees. $1,105,600 HKD in Direct Costs. (Cameron Campbell PI). 2018-2021.

Research Output

By Lee-Campbell group members

康文林 (Cameron Campbell). 2020. 清末科举停废对士人文官群体的影响——基于微观大数据的宏观新视角 (The Influence of the Abolition of the Examinations at the End of the Qing on the Holders of Exam Degrees).社会科学辑刊 (Social Science Journal) 2020:4(249):156–166. LINK

Chen Bijia, Cameron Campbell, Yuxue Ren and James Lee. 2020. Big Data for the Study of Qing Officialdom: The China Government Employee Database-Qing (CGED-Q). Journal of Chinese History. 4(2):431-460. DOI:

陈必佳 (Bijia Chen). 2019. 再论《缙绅录》记载的准确性及其史料价值 (Re-visiting the Accuracy and the Robustness of Jinshenlu as Historical Source), 清史研究  (The Qing History Journal), 2019 (4) 129-133.

陈必佳 (Bijia CHEN),康文林 (Cameron Campbell), 李中清 (James Z. Lee). 2018. 清末新政前后旗人与宗室官员的官职变化初探——以《缙绅录》数据库为材料的分析 (The Transition of Banner and Imperial Lineage Officials During the Late Qing Reform Period: Evidence from the Qing Jinshenlu Database). 清史研究 (The Qing History Journal) (4):10-20.

任玉雪 (Yuxue REN), 陈必佳 (Bijia CHEN), 郝小雯 (Xiaowen Hao), 康文林 (Cameron Campbell), 李中清 (James Z. Lee). 2016. 清代缙绅录量化数据库与官僚群体研究  清史研究 (The Qing Jinshenlu Database: A New Source for the Study of Qing Officials)  清史研究  (The Qing History Journal). 2016年11月第四期:61-77.

By others

胡祥雨 (Hu Xiangyu). 2018. 清末新政与京师司法官员的满汉比例(1901-1912)——基于《缙绅录》数据库的分析 (New Policies and the Manchu-Han Ratio among Judicial Officials in the Capital at the End of the Qing Dynasty (1901-1912): A Study Based on the Jinshenlu Database). 清史研究 (Studies in Qing History) (4):21-35.

胡恆 (Hu Heng). 2019. 清代政区分等与官僚资源调配的量化分析 (Quantitative Analysis of Qing Administrative Districts and The Allocation of Bureaucratic Resources). 近代史研究 (Modern Chinese History Studies). (3):4-29.

Publicly Released Data

CGED-Q: 1900-1912 JINSHENLU Public Release

The following links are for download of our 2019 public release of our  jinshenlu (缙绅录) records of civil officials in the Qing for the period 1900-1912 and accompanying documentation. The release consists of 638,152 records of 50,049 officials (based on our linkage) recorded in 43 quarterly editions.

The data in the release are as much as possible a direct transcription of the contents of the original sources. For this release, we have not attempted to ‘correct’ any mistakes or inconsistencies that were apparent in the original data since doing so would require us to introduce our assumptions. Along these lines, the release data have not been processed to reconcile differences in orthography for the same character, link individuals, and so forth. In our own analysis, we use data that we have processed extensively to resolve inconsistencies, correct problems, and link individuals across time, and in 2020 we anticipate releasing some of our constructed or transformed variables.

Please make sure to download and read carefully the README (声明) files as well as the User Guide (用户指南) along with the data. It is urgent that users understand the requirements re acknowledging the funding source that supported the creation of the database and its public release and citation of the User Guide and relevant publications. It is also urgent that users understand the known limitations and caveats regarding the data that are described in the User Guide.

We expect the documentation and possibly the data to change as mistakes or other problems come to light, so please check back on a regular basis for updates.

Participants at the July 2019 CGED-Q 1900-12 public release workshop at Central China Normal University.

We conducted a workshop introducing the public release on July 19-22, 2019 at Central China Normal University in Wuhan. The workshop was attended by 34 postgraduate students from institutions outside Wuhan, 5 faculty from institutions outside Wuhan, and approximately 15 participants from Central China Normal University and other institutions in Wuhan. We will continue to conduct such workshops every time new data are released.

Please send inquiries to

Download data and documentation

Please remember to cite the dataset and User Guide in all outputs that make use of it: 


Campbell, Cameron Dougall; Chen, Bijia; Ren, Yuxue; Lee, James, 2019, “China Government Employee Database-Qing (CGED-Q) Jinshenlu 1900-1912 Public Release”,, DataSpace@HKUST, V1

User Guide 使用指南

任玉雪, 陈必佳, 郝小雯, 康文林, 李中清. 2019. 中国历史官员量化数据库―清代缙绅录1900-1912时段用户指南

Ren Yuxue, Bijia Chen, Xiaowen Hao, Cameron Campbell and James Lee. 2019. China Government Employee Dataset-Qing dynasty Jinshenlu 1900-1912 Public Release User Guide.

Also make sure to acknowledge the funding that provided initial support for the construction of the database in English or Chinese as appropriate:

The construction and release of the CGED-Q was supported in part by Hong Kong Research Grants Council General Research Fund grants 16601718 and 16400114 (Cameron Campbell PI) and by intramural support from the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology.

Download outside the Mainland/境外下载
HKUST Dataspace 港科大平台下载

Download in the Mainland/境内下载
Renmin University (人民大学) Institute of Qing History (清史研究所) Digital Qing History Laboratory (数字清史研究室) Qing Historical Data Sharing Platform (清史数据共享平台)


As with our other projects we will incorporate the results of our CGED-Q related research in our on-line course Understanding China, 1700-2000: A Data Analytic Approach, in this case as Part Four – Who Gets Authority.