News and Updates

New paper by Cameron Campbell on exam degree holders at the end of the Qing

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is image-1-739x1024.pngCameron Campbell recently published a paper titled 清末科举停废对士人文官群体的影响——基于微观大数据的宏观新视角 in 社会科学辑刊 on the appointment and subsequent careers of exam degree holders and the overall composition of officialdom between 1900 and 1912, that is at the end of the Qing, and before and after the abolition of the examination system in 1905.

By analysis of quarterly CGED-Q data on civil officials between 1900 and 1912 linked to rosters This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is image-2-733x1024.pngof jinshi 进士 and juren 举人 degree recipients for specific exam years, the paper shows that annual chances of appointment of men who already held degrees actually increased after 1905, presumably because they were no longer competing with newly-minted exam degree holders. The number of serving officials who held exam degrees remained stable after the abolition of the exams and their turnover rates remained unchained. The share of central government officials who were exam degree holders declined mainly because there was an expansion in the total number of officials, driven by officials who held other kinds of degrees. Increases in the numbers and share of officials who held purchased degrees were especially notable.

The main takeaway is that the abolition of the examination system had little apparent effect on those who already had degrees. They continued to be appointed at roughly the same rate, and those who had appointments had roughly the same level of turnover as before.

Campbell wrote the first draft of the paper in Chinese in summer 2018. Yuying Shen, Ting Wang and especially Bijia Chen then edited the text substantially.

Here’s the Chinese abstract:

围绕清末科举停废及新政时期官员任命和晋升政策调整这一历史背景,采用新的微观大数据的分析方法,力图为观察清末新政前后清政府文官系统的变化提供新的视角。对1900年以来十余年间清代文官数据的分析,呈现出新政前后文官在人数、组成比例等方面的动态趋势。首先,根据官员出身,分析进士、举人及贡生等群体在整体文官系统中的比例及随时间变化的趋势。新政时期进士出身的官员群体未见受政策调整的影响,京师与地方进士官员的人数、官职分布均相对稳定,不同科年进士的任职机会大体相近。其次,虽然举人与贡生在地方官员中所占人数未变,且不同科年举人的就职机会亦未出现明显变化,但其在京师却显示巨大的变化。随着1907年后京师官员人数的增长,京师举人与贡生官员人数有相当明显的增长,且官职分布也有变化,如小京官所占比例有显著增加。最后,监生与捐纳贡生呈现出与进士和举人不同的另一种模式。1907年后监生与捐纳贡生人数增长了,但是分布的变化与举人和贡生的变化不同。

Rough English translation:

With the abolition of the examination system and the reform of appointment and promotion of officials during the New Government period as a backdrop, this paper offers a new perspective on the changes in Qing government officialdom before and after the New Government period. Analysis of data on officials in the 12 years after 1900 reveals trends and patterns in the number, composition, and other characteristics of officials. First, according to an analysis of the qualifications of officials, it analyzes time trends in the shares of officials who were jinshi, juren, gongsheng or other degree holders. During the New Government period, jinshi officials were not affected by the adjustment of policies: the numbers of officials with jinshi degrees was remained stable, as did the distribution of positions they held, and the chances of appointment for jinshi from different sittings of the exam were stable. Second, even though the share of local officials who were juren and gongsheng did not change, and there was little change in the chances of appointment for holders of juren degrees, there was a large change in the capital. After the numbers of officials serving in the capital began to increase in 1907, there was an increase in the numbers of juren and gongsheng serving there, and there was a change in the types of positions they held, so that for example there was an increase in the share of of ‘minor capital officials’. Finally, jiansheng and purchased gongsheng had very different trends from jinshi and juren. The numbers of jiansheng and gongsheng increased after 1907, but changes in their distribution were different.

Reference:

康文林 (Cameron Campbell). 2020. 清末科举停废对士人文官群体的影响——基于微观大数据的宏观新视角 (The Influence of the Abolition of the Examinations at the End of the Qing on the Holders of Exam Degrees).社会科学辑刊 (Social Science Journal) 2020:4(249):156–166. LINK

Extended discussion of Silent Revolution (无声的革命) in a video by Professor Yu Liang (余亮)

On July 12, 2020. Professor Yu Liang has posted a video with his extended discussion of our book Silent Revolution (无声的革命) in the context of commentary on the college entrance exam (gaokao 高考). Silent Revolution was an output from our CUSD-PRC project.

As of 1:30pm on July 15, 2020, it had been viewed 240,000 times, and ‘liked’ 22,000 times. At that time, it had 4488 messages (弹幕) posted on the video.

 

English language paper introducing the CGED-Q published in the Journal of Chinese History

Our paper providing an introduction in English to the China Government Employee Dataset-Qing (CGED-Q) is now available at the Journal of Chinese History. The paper is lead-authored by Bijia Chen and is based on the second chapter of her PhD dissertation, which she defended in 2019. The paper will appear in the July 2020 issue.

Here is the abstract:

We introduce the China Government Employee Database—Qing (CGED-Q), a new resource for the quantitative study of Qing officialdom. The CGED-Q details the backgrounds, characteristics and careers of Qing officials who served between 1760 and 1912, with nearly complete coverage of officials serving after 1830. We draw information on careers from the Roster of Government Personnel (jinshenlu), which in each quarterly edition listed approximately 12,500 regular civil offices and their holders in the central government and the provinces. Information about backgrounds and characteristics comes from such linked sources as lists of exam degree holders. In some years, information on military officials is also available. As of February 2020, the CGED-Q comprises 3,817,219 records, of which 3,354,897 are civil offices and the remainder are military. In this article we review the progress and prospects of the project, introduce the sources, transcription procedures, and constructed variables, and provide examples of results to showcase its potential.

Bijia Chen is now a postdoc at  the Renmin University Institute of Qing History.

For more information about the CGED-Q, please see the CGED-Q project page.

Errata

Page 2 – Footnote 1 – line 10 – Zhenan should be Zhinan

Page 3- second line in paragraph after heading ‘Origin, current status, and future plans…’, ‘ongoing of study’ should be ‘ongoing study’

Page 3 – Footnote 6 – line 2 – Lishi Yanjiu should be Qingshi Yanjiu

Page 8 – Footnote 22 – line 1 – Jizhi should be Jiazhi

Page 8 – Footnote 26 – line 1 – Jijie should be Ji

 

New Milestones for Chen Liang

New milestones for Chen Liang.  In Fall 2019, Nanjing University promoted Chen to Full Professor of History. In Spring 2020, the university also appointed Chen to be Associate Dean of the College of History in charge of research and graduate training.  Congratulations Chen!

Paper on assortative marriage in rural Shanxi during the mid-20th century published in Research in Social Stratification and Mobility

Our paper “Education, class and assortative marriage in rural Shanxi, China in the mid-twentieth century” has been accepted at Research in Social Stratification and Mobility. The paper is lead-authored by XING Long at Shanxi University and co-authored by group members Cameron Campbell, Xiangning Li, Matthew Noellert and James Lee. A pre-print is now available open access at the site: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0276562419302367. This is something we have been working on for a while and it is great to see it coming out. More information about the larger project and the data is available here.

Here is the abstract:

This paper examines the consequences of political, economic and social change in mid-twentieth century China for patterns of assortative mating by both education and class. Traditionally in China, marriages were arranged by parents, and ideally matched families of similar socioeconomic status. However, the Marriage Law passed by the People’s Republic of China in 1950 promoted free choice and forbade arranged marriage and other interference by families in the marriage decisions of their children. Later, Land Reform, Collectivization and other movements had profound impacts on rural household organization and social relations. We investigate their effects on assortative mating by using novel linked administrative data compiled in rural Shanxi Province in North China in the mid-1960s. These data record the education and family class labels (jiating chushen) of spouses for 1459 couples in 30 villages. The class labels were assigned in the 1950s based on family landholding before the Land Reform and became hereditary. We find that class label had effects above and beyond those of education, suggesting that assortative mating studies that only consider education overlook an important dimension of social status in marriage patterns, and thereby overstate the overall permeability of boundaries between social groups. Furthermore, by comparing couples according to whether they married before or after 1949, we find that patterns of homogamy and hypergamy remained highly stable in the face of substantial social transformation after 1949.

Bijia Chen publishes comment on jinshenlu 縉紳錄 as a source

At the end of 2019, Bijia Chen published a comment in the Qing History Journal (清史研究) on the jinshenlu 縉紳錄 as a source, providing clarification and explanation in response to some possibly misleading points made in a journal article that appeared in 清史研究 in 2018. The full reference for Bijia’s article and a link to it are below.

陈必佳 (Bijia Chen). 2019. 再论《缙绅录》记载的准确性及其史料价值 (Re-visiting the Accuracy and the Robustness of Jinshenlu as Historical Source), 清史研究  (The Qing History Journal), 2019 (4) 129-133.
http://kns.cnki.net/kcms/detail/detail.aspx?filename=QSYJ201904013&dbcode=CJFQ&dbname=CJFDTEMP&v=

 

Lee-Campbell Group celebrates Xiao Xing’s retirement and contributions

 

James Lee and Xiao Xing

On December 13, 2019, the Lee-Campbell Group held a dinner in Beijing in honor of Xiao Xing, who retired in 2018 after working with us for 20 years. Xiao Xing was the first coder we engaged in mainland China in 1998 after we decided to move our data entry there. She

James Lee, Cameron Campbell, Bijia Chen and our coders in Beijing.

helped enter material for many of our databases, including but not limited to the CMGPD-LN, CMGPD-SC and more recently the CGED-Q. She also helped with the training of new coders. Her feedback also played a role in the specification of protocols for data entry. It has been a tremendous pleasure to work with Xiao Xing for two decades. We are grateful for all of her contributions and wish her the best.

 

PhD student Bijia Chen graduates, begins postdoc at Renmin University Department of History

Bijia Chen successfully defended her PhD dissertation on October 25, 2019. The title of her dissertation is “Origins and Career Patterns of the Qing Government Officials (1850-1912): Evidence from the China Government Employee Dataset-Qing (CGED-Q)”. Cameron Campbell was her primary advisor, James Lee was her co-advisor, and Yongshun Cai, Lawrence Zhang and Matthew Mosca served as examiners. Bijia also earned her MPhil in Social Science at HKUST. For her PhD studies she has been supported by an HKPFS.

In December 2019, Bijia started as a postdoc at the Department of History at Renmin University.

Congratulations Bijia!

 

Lee-Campbell Group at the Social Science History Association meetings in Chicago, November 21-24, 2019

Members of the Lee-Campbell group will be presenting 8 papers and participating as co-authors in 2 papers presented by others in 9 sessions at the Social Science History Association meetings in Chicago this November. Group members are also participating in an Author-Meets-Critics session. Below is a current schedule based on the SSHA preliminary program.

Thursday, November 21 / 9:30 AM – 11:00 AM
Session 5
EAP and beyond
Clark 5 – Floor 7

Chair: James Z. Lee, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology

  1. Population and Living Standards in Asia and Europe, 1700-1900. an Overview of the Findings of the Eurasian Population and Family History Project. • Tommy Bengtsson, Lund University; Cameron Campbell, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology; James Z. Lee, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology; Feng Wang, University of California, Irvine; Martin Dribe, Lund University; Christer Lundh, University of Gothenburg; George Alter, University of Michigan; Muriel Neven, University of Liege; Michel Oris, Université de Genève; Marco Breschi, Università degli Studi di Sassari; Matteo Manfredini, University of Parma.

Thursday, November 21 / 1:45 PM – 3:15 PM
Session 45
Education, Discrimination and Social Stratification
LaSalle 1 (Floor 7)

  1. Holders of Purchased Degrees in the Chinese Civil Service during the Late Qing (1850-1912) • Bijia Chen, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology; Cameron Campbell, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology; James Z. Lee, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology.

Friday, November 22 / 9:00 AM – 10:30 AM
Session 78
Big Data in Historical Research
Grant Park Parlor (Floor 6)

  1. Public Release of the China Government Employee Database – Qing (CGED-Q) 1900-1912 • Cameron Campbell, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology; Bijia Chen, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology; Heng Hu, Renmin University; Yuxue Ren, Shanghai Jiaotong University; James Z. Lee, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology.

Friday, November 22 / 10:45 AM – 12:15 PM
Session 95
Big Data in Historical Research II
Grant Park Parlor (Floor 6)

  1. The Organizational Demography of the Qing Civil Service • Cameron Campbell, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology; Bijia Chen, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology; James Z. Lee, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology.

Friday, November 22 / 1:15 PM – 2:45 PM
Session 111
Fertility Change, Timing, and Marriage
Clark 5 (Floor 7)

  1. Eight Decades of Educational Assortative Marriage in China • Hao Dong, Peking University; Yu Xie, Princeton University.

Friday, November 22 / 1:15 PM – 2:45 PM
Session 113
Development of Longitudinal Historical Data
Grand Park Parlor (Floor 6)

  1. Constructing Individual-Level Longitudinal Data for Japanese Historical Population: Challenges and Opportunities • Satomi Kurosu, Reitaku University; Hao Dong, Peking University; Miyuki Takahashi, Rissho University; Akira Hayami, Reitaku University.

Friday, November 22 / 4:45 PM – 6:15 PM
Session 152
Different Beginnings-Comparative Perspectives on Early Tertiary Education
LaSalle 1 (Floor 7)

  1. Mutable Inequality: Meritocracy, Gender, and the Making of the Chinese Academe, 1912-1953 • Bamboo Yunzhu Ren, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology; Chen Liang, Nanjing University; James Z. Lee, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology.
  2. The Spatial and Social Origins of Chinese Doctoral Students in North America and Europe, 1905-1962 • Zixin Zhang, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology; James Z. Lee, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology.

Saturday, November 23 / 10:45 AM – 12:15 PM
Session 183
Roles of Kinship: Demographic Outcomes and Methodology
Clark 5 (Floor 7)

  1. The Making of Missing Girls: Comparative Evidence from Population Administrative Microdata of Three East Asian Populations, 1652-1945 • Hao Dong, Peking University; Satomi Kurosu, Reitaku University; Wen-Shan Yang, Academia Sinica; James Z. Lee, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology.

Saturday, November 23 / 10:45 AM – 12:15 PM
Session 193
Author Meets Critics, Taisu Zhang, 2017. the Laws and Economics of Confucianism: Kinship and Property in Preindustrial China and England. Cambridge University Press
Dearborn 2 (Floor 7)

Chair: James Z. Lee, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology

Discussant: Shuang Chen, University of Iowa

Discussant: James Z. Lee, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology

Sunday, November 24 / 9:00 AM – 10:30 AM
Session 239
Political Economy and the Chinese State
Grant Park Parlor (Floor 6)

  1. Collectivization, Urbanization, and Occupational Mobility in Inland North China in the Mid-20th Century • Xiangning Li, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology; Matthew Noellert, University of Iowa; Cameron Campbell, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology; James Z. Lee, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology.

CGED-Q 1900-1912 Jinshenlu public release workshop held at Central China Normal University

Participants at the July 2019 workshop at Central China Normal University to introduce the CGED-Q Jinshenlu Public Release

We held a workshop on July 20-22 at Central China Normal University to introduce the China Government Employee Database-Qing (CGED-Q) Jinshenlu 1900-1912 public release. The workshop was co-organized by the Renmin University Institute of Qing History, the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Division of Social Science, and Central China Normal University, and the local organizer was the Central China Normal University School of History and Culture. Faculty and students from HKUST, Renmin University, Central China Normal University and other institutions made presentations introducing the public release and other major databases, providing examples of applications, and explaining how to load the data into major statistical packages. The participants included 34 postgraduate students from a variety of institutions in the mainland and elsewhere, a number of guests from Central China Normal University and other institutions in Wuhan. The program is below.

时间 内容 主讲人
7月19日 14:00-18:30 报到
7月20日 9:00 开幕式
9:30 合影
9:45  《中国历史官员量化数据库――清代》(以下简称CGED-Q)项目的历史、现状和未来 康文林,任玉雪
10:15 介绍人民大学清史研究所数字清史实验室(清史数据共享平台) 胡恒
10:45 休息15分钟
11:00 华中师大的大数据历史研究的源起 马敏、付海晏
11:30 李中清—康文林团队其他相关科研项目介绍 李中清、任韵竹
12:30 午餐
14:00 CGED-Q项目介绍第一节

源起及数据库内容

陈必佳、康文林、任玉雪
15:00 CGED-Q项目介绍第二节

数据库的优势与不足

陈必佳、康文林、任玉雪
休息15分钟
16:15 清代《缙绅录》的内容来源与出版过程 阚红柳
16:45 讨论
17:15 结束
7月21日 8:45 如何应用STATA对CGED-Q进行量化分析 陈必佳
9:45 应用Python分析CGED-Q中文官仕途的可能性和文官群体仕途的共性 王彦邦、陈煦萌
10:45 休息15分钟
11:00 应用RGIS分析CGED-Q中以县级行政区划为单位的文官系统规律及变化 张梦迪
12:00 指导使用R, STATA和Python分析数据和相关问题答疑
12:30 午餐
以CGED-Q为核心的相关研究
14:00 CGED-Q的记录连接和其他相关议题:
以家庭背景和文官仕途之关系为例
康文林
15:00 文官系统中有科名的官员及旗人官员 陈必佳
休息15分钟
15:45 清朝的回避制度 任玉雪
16:15 冲繁疲难和地方官员的任职 胡恒
16:45 讨论
17:30 结束
7月22日 9:00

 

练习:
学员将被分成小组,运用R, Python或STATA进行简单的分析
陈必佳、康文林、张梦迪、陈煦萌、王彦邦
10:00 休息15分钟
10:15 分享和讨论
学员陈述并讨论数据分析的初步结果及展开其他问题研究的想法
12:15 闭幕式
12:30 结束

Presenters

马  敏      华中师范大学

彭南生      华中师范大学

李中清      香港科技大学

康文林      香港科技大学

付海晏      华中师范大学

胡  恒      中国人民大学清史研究所

阚红柳      中国人民大学清史研究所

胡  迪      南京师范大学

任玉雪      上海交通大学

陈必佳      香港科技大学

任韵竹      香港科技大学

陈煦萌      香港科技大学

张梦迪      香港科技大学

王彦邦      香港科技大学

吴艺贝      上海交通大学

杨  莉      上海交通大学