Class web page at SSC (includes discussion board): https://moodle2.sscnet.ucla.edu/course/view/13S-SOCIOL226A-1
Instructor: Cameron Campbell, 202 Haines, (310) 825-1031, email@example.com
Time and Location: Mondays, 1-4PM, CCPR
Office Hours: Thursdays 9-11AM, and by appointment.
This course introduces the ideas, facts, and materials of demography. It explores social and economic causes and effects of population growth, composition and distribution. The course considers demographic phenomena in both developing and developed countries. Topics include the history of population growth in the world as well as contemporary population issues. The course includes some discussion of basic concepts in demographic analysis, but does not focus on methods of analysis or research techniques.
Soc. 226A is half of a two-quarter sequence with Soc. 226B. Either course may be taken independently, but the social demography faculty recommends that graduate students who intend to take the Department of Sociology field exam in social demography take both quarters. Soc. 226A emphasizes population dynamics, demographic transition theory, population composition, and mortality and fertility trends and differentials. Soc. 226B focuses on nuptiality (marriage and cohabitation), union dissolution, family and household composition, migration and population distribution.
There are two requirements in addition to active participation in the weekly seminars: (1) lead class discussions of the readings, and (2) short weekly essays on topics addressed in the required readings.
(1) Discussions will be led by teams of 2-4 students. The size of the teams, and the number of times each student is part of a team, will depend on the number of enrolled students. There will be a signup at the first class meeting, so please review the material below and come prepared with preferences. Teams are expected to make introductory remarks at the beginning of class introducing the key issues in that week’s reading and pose questions for class discussion. They may also make introductory remarks and pose questions about specific readings. At the end of class, teams are expected to make concluding remarks in which they synthesize the that synthesize the key themes that emerged in the discussion. Discussion leaders may post a short memo on the course web page to alert participants to conceptual and methodological issues to be addressed in the discussion. For those who decide to prepare memos in advance, these should be posted on the course web page Discussion Board by noon on Monday so that participants have time to prepare for Tuesday’s class. I am happy to meet with the discussion leaders in advance to discuss the readings and plan for the class sessions. Teams may work out their own division of responsibilities.
(2) Each week for which a student is not a discussion leader, the student will write a one to two page essay on a topic to be posted on the course web page. These synthetic essays will address themes and major issues in the readings. In some weeks, I will post prompts on the announcement page for the course. Students must post their essays on the course web page by noon on Monday to allow everyone an opportunity to read the material before the seminar session.
Students must turn in all assignments.
- Performance as discussion leader and class participation in remaining weeks contribute 25% of the grade.
- Essays from the weeks when students are not discussion leaders contribute 65% of the grade.
- A 3-5 proposal for a future research project on a specific topic related to the ones covered in class will be due at the end of finals week and account for 10% of the grade. The format of the paper will be discussed during the quarter.
To complete the course, students must finish all assignments. As a matter of policy, I do not give incompletes.
Livi-Bacci, Massimo. 2001. A Concise History of World Population. Fourth Edition. Blackwell.
This has been requisitioned at Ackerman, but may be with the textbooks for Sociology 116.
Additional required readings will be on the web through JSTOR (http://www.jstor.org/jstor/), Project Muse (http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/dem/), which has the most recent issues of Demography, the UCLA Library’s ORION2 (orion2.library.ucla.edu) and other web pages, including a password-protected course web page accessible only to enrolled students. JSTOR, Project Muse, Taylor and Francis, and many of the sites that ORION2 links to must be accessed from a UCLA computer or via the UCLA VPN. See this page for information about the VPN: https://www.bol.ucla.edu/services/vpn/. Below, JSTOR links are indicated by a J.
Please note that links may ‘break’ because journals change hands, publishers reorganize their sites, or other sites make changes. If a link is broken, please search for the paper on Google Scholar. That will usually yield a ‘live’ link.
* indicates session will be led by the instructor. Other sessions will be led by students.
*Week 1. Introduction: What is demography? Overview of class contents, policies and organization
Hauser, Philip M. and Otis Dudley Duncan. 1959. “Overview and conclusions,” and “Part I. “Demography as a science,” in P. M. Hauser and O.D. Duncan eds., The Study of Population: An Inventory and Appraisal. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1-105.
Keyfitz, Nathan. 1975. “How do we know the facts of demography?” Population and Development Review. 1(Dec):267-288. J.
Ryder, N. B. 1964. “Notes on the concept of a population.” American Journal of Sociology. 69 (5):447-463. J.
Suggested, not required.
Preston, Samuel H., Patrick Heuveline, and Michel Guillot. 2001. “Basic Concepts and Measures.” Chapter 1 in Demography: Measuring and Modeling Population Processes. Oxford: Blackwell.
McFalls, Joseph A. 2003. “Population: A Lively Introduction.” Population Bulletin. 58(4):1-44. Link
Week 2. Population theory, part 1
Boserup, Ester. 1976. “Environment, population, and technology in primitive societies.” Population and Development Review 2(March): 21-36. J.
Malthus, Thomas R. 1953. “A summary view of the principle of population” in D. V. Glass, Introduction to Malthus. New York: Wiley, 117-187.
Lee, James and Wang Feng. 1999. “Malthusian models and Chinese realities: The Chinese demographic system, 1700-2000.” Population and Development Review 25(1), 3-65. J.
Lee, Ronald. 1987. “Population dynamics of humans and other animals.” Demography. 24 (4): 443-467. J.
Bengtsson, Tommy, Cameron Campbell, James Lee, et al. 2004. Life Under Pressure: Mortality and Living Standards in Europe and Asia, 1700-1900. MIT Press. Chapters 1, 3-5, 14.
Suggested, not required.
Lee, Ronald. 1986. “Malthus and Boserup: a dynamic synthesis,” in David Coleman and Roger Schofield, eds., The State of Population Theory: Forward from Malthus. London: Basic Blackwell, 96-130.
Wrigley, E.A. and R.S. Schofield. 1981. The Population History of England 1541-1871: A Reconstruction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Chapter 11.
Wrigley, E. A. 1999. “Corn and crisis: Malthus on the high price of provisions.” Population and Development Review 25 (1), 121-128. J.
Week 3. Population theory, part 2
Ahlburg, Dennis A. 1998. “Julian Simon and the population growth debate.” Population and Development Review. 24 (2):317-27. J.
Coale, Ansley J. 1978. “Population growth and economic development: The case of Mexico.” Foreign Affairs. 56(2):415-429.
Easterlin, Richard. 1978. “What will 1984 be like? Socioeconomic implications of recent twists in age structure.” Demography. 15(4):397-432. J.
Fricke, Tom. 1997. “Culture theory and demographic process: Toward a thicker demography,” in David I. Kertzer and Tom Fricke, eds, Anthropological Demography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 248-277.
Goode, William J. 1970. [orig. 1963] “World changes in family patterns” and “Conclusion” in World Revolution and Family Patterns. New York: The Free Press.
Simon, Julian. 1977. The Economics of Population Growth. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 3-19, 474-485.
Suggested, not required
Macunovich, Diane J. 2000. “Relative cohort size: Source of a unifying theory of global fertility transition?” Population and Development Review 26(2): 235-261. J.
Week 4. Population composition
Age and sex composition
Coale, Ansley J. 1964. “How a population ages or grows younger,” in Ronald Friedman, ed., Population: The Vital Revolution. Garden City, New York: Anchor Books, 47-58.
Heuveline, Patrick. 2004. “Impact of the HIV epidemic on population and household structure: the dynamics and evidence to date.” 18(Suppl. 2): S45-S53. http://www.aidsonline.com/pt/re/aids/pdfhandler.00002030-200406002-00006.pdf
*Lee, Ronald and Shripad Tuljapurkar. 1997. “Death and Taxes: Longer Life, Consumption, and Social Security.” Demography. 34(1):67-81. J
Socioeconomic, race/ethnic, and other characteristics
Harris, David R. and Jeremiah Joseph Sim. 2002. “Who is Multiracial? Assessing the Complexity of Lived Race.” American Sociological Review. 67(4):614-627. http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/3088948.pdf
*Hout, Michael, Andrew Greeley, Melissa J. Wilde. 2001. “The Demographic Imperative in Religious Change in the United States.” American Journal of Sociology. 107(2):468-500. http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/324189
*Maralani, Vida and Robert D. Mare. 2006. “The Intergenerational Effects of Changes in Women’s Educational Attainments.” American Sociological Review. 71(4):542-546. Download at IngentaConnect
*Musick, Kelly and Robert D. Mare. 2004. “Family Structure, Intergenerational Mobility, and the Reproduction of Poverty: Evidence for Increasing Polarization?” Demography 41: 629-48. http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/demography/v041/41.4musick.pdf
Skim, but pay attention to discussion of measurement issues.
Mare, Robert D. 1995. “Changes in educational attainment and school enrollment,” in Reynolds Farley, ed., State of the Union: America in the 1990s, Vol. 1, Economic Trends. New York: Russell Sage.
Wetzel, James R. 1995. “Labor force, unemployment and earnings,” in Reynolds Farley, ed., State of the Union: America in the 1990s, Vol. 1, Economic Trends. New York: Russell Sage.
Related, not required.
*Gregson, Simon, Geoffrey P. Garnett, and Roy M. Anderson. 1994. “Assessing the potential impact of the HIV-1 Epidemic on orphanhood and the demographic structure of populations in sub-Saharan Africa.” Population Studies 48 (3):435-448. J.
*Heuveline, Patrick. 2003. “HIV and Population Dynamics: A General Model and Maximum-Likelihood Standards for East Africa.” Demography. 40(2):217245. http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/demography/v040/40.2heuveline.pdf
*Hout, Michael and Joshua Goldstein. 1994. “How 4.5 million Irish immigrants became 40 million Irish Americans: Demographic and Subjective Aspects of Ethnic Composition of White Americans.” American Sociological Review. 59:64-82. J.
*Maralani, Vida. 2008. “The Changing Relationship between Family Size and Educational Attainment over the Course of Socioeconomic Development: Evidence from Indonesia” Demography 45:693-717. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2831397/
*Preston, Samuel H. and Cameron Campbell. 1993. “Differential fertility and the distribution of traits: The case of IQ.” American Journal of Sociology 98(5): 997-1019. Also see comments and response in this “Symposium on Intergenerational Transmission.” J.
Shryock, Henry S. and Jacob S. Siegel and Associates 1976. The Methods and Materials of Demography. Condensed edition by Edward G. Stockwell. New York: Academic, Chapters 7 and 8.
Smith, James P. and Barry Edmonston (eds.). 1997. “The face of the U. S. population in 2050,” in The New Americans: Economic Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration. National Research Council: National Academy Press, 76-134.
Week 5. World population before and after 1850: The demographic transition and population growth
Livi-Bacci, Chapters 1-5
Davis, Kingsley. 1945. “The world demographic transition.” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 237:1-11. J
Davis, Kingsley. 1963. “The theory of change and response in modern demographic history.” Population Index 29:345-366. J
Lam, David. 2011. “How the world survived the Population Bomb: Lessons from 50 years of extraordinary demographic history.” Demography. 48(4):1231-1262. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13524-011-0070-z
Lee, Ronald. 2003. “The Demographic Transition: Three Centuries of Fundamental Change.” The Journal of Economic Perspectives. 17(4):167-190. J
Notestein, Frank W. 1945. “Population–The long view,” in Theodore W. Schultz, ed., Food for the World. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 36-57.
Week 6. Factors affecting mortality
Cutler, David, Angus Deaton and Adriana Lleras-Muney. 2006. “The Determinants of Mortality.” Journal of Economic Perspectives. 20(3): 97-120. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/aea/jep/2006/00000020/00000003/art00005
Elo, Irma. 2009. “Social Class Differentials in Health and Mortality: Patterns and Explanations in Comparative Perspective.” 35:553-572. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/pdf/10.1146/annurev-soc-070308-115929
Hayward, Mark D. 2004. “The Long Arm of Childhood: The Influence of Early-Life Social Conditions on Men’s Mortality.” Demography. 41(1):87-107. http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/demography/v041/41.1hayward.pdf
Repetti, Rena, Theodore P. Robles, and Bridget Reynolds. 2011. “Allostatic processes in the family.” Development and Psychopathology. 23: 921-938. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8328241
Seeman, Teresa, Bruce S. McEwen, John W. Rowe, and Burton H. Singer. 2001. “Allostatic load as a marker of cumulative biological risk: Macarthur studies of successful aging.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 98(8):4770-4775. http://www.pnas.org/content/98/8/4770.full.pdf+html
Optional, not required.
Kunitz, Stephen J. 1987. “Explanations and ideologies of mortality patterns.” Population and Development Review 13(3):379-408. J.
Link, Bruce G. and Jo Phelan. 1995. “Social conditions as fundamental causes of disease.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 35:80-94. http://www.jstor.org/page/termsConfirm.jsp?redirectUri=/stable/pdfplus/2626958.pdf
Mason, Karen Oppenheim. 1985. The Status of Women: A Review of Its Relationships to Fertility and Mortality. New York: The Rockefeller Foundation.
Montgomery, Mark R. 2000. “Perceiving mortality decline.” Population and Development Review 26(4):795-819. J.
Preston, Samuel H., Patrick Heuveline, and Michel Guillot. 2001. “Age-specific Rates and Probabilities” and “The Life Table and Single Decrement Processes.” Chapters 2 and 3 in Demography: Measuring and Modeling Population Processes. Oxford: Blackwell.
Salomon, Joshua A. and Christopher J. L. Murray. 2002. “The epidemiologic transition revisited: Compositional models for causes of death by age and sex.” Population and Development Review 28(2): 205-228. J
Wilkinson, Richard G. 2006. “The Impact of Inequality.” Social Research: An International Quarterly of Social Sciences. 73(2):711-732.
Week 7. Trends in health and mortality
Caldwell, John C. 1986. “Routes to low mortality in poor countries.” Population and Development Review 12(2):171-220. J.
Costa, Dora L. 2003. “Understanding mid-life and older age mortality declines: evidence from Union Army veterans.” Journal of Econometrics. 112(1): 175-192. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4076(02)00159-8
Cutler, David M and Grant Miller. 2005. “The Role of Public Health Improvements in Health Advances: The Twentieth-Century United States.” Demography. 42(1):1-22. http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/demography/v042/42.1cutler.pdf
Ewbank, Douglas C. and Samuel H. Preston. 1990. “Personal health behavior and the decline in infant and child mortality: The United States, 1900-1930,” in John Caldwell, Sally Findley, Pat Caldwell, Gigi Santow, Wendy Cosford, Jennifer Braid, and Daphne Broers-Freeman, eds., What We Know about Health Transition: The Cultural, Social and Behavioural Determinants of Health. Vol. I. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 116-149.
Omran, Abdel R. 1971. “The epidemiological transition: A theory of the epidemiology of population change.” Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly 69:509-538. J
Preston, Samuel H. 1980. “Causes and consequences of mortality decline in less developed countries during the twentieth century,” in Richard A. Easterlin, ed., Population and Economic Change in Developing Countries. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 289-341.
Preston, Samuel H. 1985. “Mortality and development revisited.” Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 18. New York: United Nations, 34-40.
Kannisto, Vaino, Jens Lauritsen, A. Roger Thatcher, and James W. Vaupel. 1994. “Reductions in mortality at advanced ages: Several decades of evidence from 27 countries.” Population and Development Review 20(4):793-810. J.
Tuljapurkar, Shripad, Nan LI and Carl Boe. 2000. “A universal pattern of mortality decline in the G7 countries.” Nature. 405:789-792. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v405/n6788/pdf/405789a0.pdf
Optional, not required
McKeown, Thomas, and R.G. Record. 1962. “Reasons for the Decline of Mortality in England and Wales during the Nineteenth Century.” Population Studies 16(2):94-122. J.
Preston, Samuel H. and Etienne van de Walle. 1978. “Urban French mortality in the nineteenth century.” Population Studies 2(2):275-297. J.
Schofield, Roger and David Reher. 1991. “The decline of mortality in Europe,” in Schofield, R., D. Reher and A. Bideau, eds., The Decline of Mortality in Europe. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1-17.
Week 8. Differentials in health and mortality
Education, Socioeconomic Status
Adler, Nancy E. and John M. Astrove. 1996. “Socioeconomic status and health: What we know and what we don’t.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 896:3-15. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/120755486/PDFSTART
Elo, Irma T. and Samuel H. Preston. 1996. “Education differentials in mortality: United States, 1979-1985.” Social Science and Medicine. 42(1):47-57. http://dx.doi.org doi:10.1016/0277-9536(95)00062-3
Lleras-Muney, Adriana. 2005. “The Relationship between Education and Adult Mortality in the U.S.” Review of Economic Studies. 72(1): 189-221. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/120799702/PDFSTART
Palloni, Alberto. 2006. “Reproducing inequalities: Luck, Wallets, and the Enduring Effects of Childhood Health.” Demography. 43(4): 587-615. http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/demography/v043/43.4palloni.pdf
Hummer, Robert A., Richard G. Rogers, Charles B. Nam, and Felicia B. LeClere. “Race/Ethnicity, Nativity, and U.S. adult mortality.” Social Science Quarterly 80(1):1361-53. Link.
Palloni, Alberto and Elizabeth Arias. 2004. “Paradox Lost: Explaining the Hispanic adult mortality advantage.” Demography. 41(3):385-415. http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/demography/v041/41.3palloni.pdf
Geronimus, Arline T., Margaret Hicken, Danya Keene, and John Bound. 2006. “Weathering” and Age Patterns of Allostatic Load Scores Among Blacks and Whites in the United States.” American Journal of Public Health. 96(5):826-833. Link
Suggested, not required.
Case, Anne and Christine Paxson. 2005. “Sex differences in morbidity and mortality.” Demography. 42(2):189-21. http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/demography/v042/42.2case.pdf
Elo, Irma and Samuel H. Preston. 1997. “Racial and ethnic differences in mortality at older ages.” In Martin, Linda G. and Beth J. Soldo, eds. Racial and Ethnic Differences in the Health of Older Americans. Washington, National Academy Press, 10-42.
Elo, Irma, Cassio M. Turra, Bert Kestenbaum, and B. Reneé Ferguson. 2004. “Mortality among elderly Hispanics in the United States: Past evidence and new results.” Demography. 41(1):109-128. http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/demography/v041/41.1elo.pdf
Hummer, Robert A., Richard G. Rogers, and Isaac W. Eberstein. 1998. “Sociodemographic differentials in adult mortality: A Review of analytic approaches.” Population and Development Review. 24(3): 553-578. J
Lauderdale, Diane S. and Bert Kestenbaum. 2002. “Mortality rates of elderly Asian American populations based on medicare and social security data.” Demography 39(3): 529-540. J
Roter, Debra L. and Judith A. Hall. 1992. “The Influence of Patient Characteristics on Communication between the Doctor and the Patient.” Chapter 3 in Doctors Talking with Patients/Patients Talking with Doctors. Westport, CT: Auburn House.
Smith, James and Raynard S. Kington. 1997. “Race, socioeconomic status, and health in later life.” In Martin, Linda G. and Beth J. Soldo, eds., Racial and Ethnic Differences in the Health of Older Americans. Washington, National Academy Press, 106-162.
Week 9: measurement and determinants
Bongaarts, John and Robert G. Potter. 1983. Fertility, Biology, and Behavior: An Analysis of the Proximate Determinants. New York, Academic Press, 1-77.
Carley, Kathleen. 2001. “Learning and using new ideas: A sociocognitive perspective,” in John B. Casterline, ed., Diffusion Processes and Fertility Transition: Selected Perspectives. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 179-207.
Davis, Kingsley and Judith Blake. 1956. “Social Structure and Fertility: An Analytic Framework.” Economic Development and Cultural Change 4(April). 211-235. J
Henry, Louis. 1961. “Some data on natural fertility.” Eugenics Quarterly. 8:81-91.
Menken, Jane, James Trussell and Susan Watkins. 1981. “The nutrition-fertility link: An evaluation of the evidence.” The Journal of Interdisciplinary History. 11(3):425-41. J
Montgomery, Mark R. and John B. Casterline. 1996. “Social learning, social influence, and new models of fertility,” in John B. Casterline, Ronald D. Lee, and Karen A. Foote, eds., Fertility in the United States: New Patterns, New Theories. Supplement to Population and Development Review, Vol. 22. New York: Population Council, 151-175. J.
Pollak, Robert A. and Susan Cotts Watkins. 1993. “Cultural and economic approaches to fertility: Proper marriage or mesalliance?” Population and Development Review. 19:467-496. J.
Ryder, Norman. 1965. “The cohort as a concept in the study of social change.” American Sociological Review. 30:843-61. J.
Suggested, not required
Preston, Samuel H., Patrick Heuveline, and Michel Guillot. 2001. ”Fertility and Reproduction.” Chapter 5 in Demography: Measuring and Modeling Population Processes. Oxford: Blackwell.
Week 10. Fertility transitions
Caldwell, John C. 1976. “Toward a restatement of demographic transition theory.” Population and Development Review 2(3/4):321-366. J.
Cleland, John and Christopher Wilson. 1987. “Demand theories of the fertility transition: An iconoclastic view.” Population Studies. 41:5-30. J.
Coale, Ansley. 1973. “The demographic transition.” Proceedings of the International Population Conference, Liege, Volume 1, 53-72.
Mason, Karen Oppenheim. 1997. “Explaining fertility transitions.” Demography 34(4):443-54. J.
Van de Walle, Etienne and John Knodel. 1980. “Europe’s Fertility Transition: New Evidence and Lessons for Today’s Developing World.” Population Bulletin. 34(6):3-45.
Optional, not required
Axinn, William G. and Scott T. Yabiku. 2001. “Social change, the social organization of families, and fertility limitation.” American Journal of Sociology. 106(5):1219-61. http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/AJS/journal/issues/v106n5/050040/050040.web.pdf
Bledsoe, Caroline, Fatoumatta Banja, and Allan G. Hill. 1998. “Reproductive mishaps and western contraception: An African challenge to fertility theory.” Population and Development Review 24(1):15-57. J.
Coale, Ansley J. and Susan Cotts Watkins, eds. 1986. The Decline of Fertility in Europe. Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1-30, 420-449.
Kohler, Hans Peter, Jere R. Behrman and Susan C. Watkins. 2001. “The density of social networks and fertility decisions: Evidence from South Nyanza District, Kenya.” Demography. 38(1):43-58. http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/demography/v038/38.1kohler02.pdf
Teitelbaum, Michael S. 1972. “Fertility effects of the abolition of legal abortion in Romania.” Population Studies. 26(3): 405-417. J.