Sociology of Contemporary China
Subject to revision. Some readings will be added or deleted.
Cameron Campbell, 202 Haines, x51031. email@example.com.If you send email, please include “181B” in the subject line, without the quotes.Office Hours: TBA. I am normally in my office 9-5 Monday to Friday, unless I am teaching, in a meeting, or out of town. If you would like to schedule an appointment, first check my calendar at http://www.camerondcampbell.me/calendar.
CLASS WEB PAGE
This class surveys important changes in Chinese society from the middle of the twentieth century to the present. The class focuses on 1) family and household, 2) population, and 3) social mobility and inequality. The emphasis is on understanding major changes that occurred after 1949 and during the Reform Era, or are underway now. The discussion of population will focus on the causes and long-term consequences of recent low levels of fertility. The discussion of social mobility and inequality will emphasize the intergenerational transmission of status, and will seek to embed current trends and patterns into a long-term historical context. Lectures and reading will seek to embed these changes in long-term historical and comparative context, focusing on the interaction between economic and political change and family organization. Major themes of the class will be contrasts and similarities between Chinese and Western society, sources and methods for the quantitative study of Chinese society, the place of China in the social sciences, and the challenges that China poses for social theory originally developed from the study of Western societies.
181A and B are independent of each other. They are highly complementary in terms of topics, evidence and perspective. Taking both of them will provide a comprehensive overview of contemporary Chinese society that should prove useful to anyone planning a career related in some way to China, but 181B may be taken without taking 181A.
LEE, James Z. and WANG Feng. 1999. One quarter of humanity. Malthusian mythology and Chinese realities. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Hessler, Peter. 2010. Country Driving. Harper.
YAN Yunxiang. 2003. Private Life Under Socialism. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Journal articles and other readings will be available online via JSTOR or other electronic resources. Many if not most of these will require that you be connected to the internet from a computer on the UCLA campus, or a computer running the UCLA VPN or proxy server. If you are unable to run the VPN or proxy server, I suggest you make a point of downloading the readings while you are on campus. If you prefer to print them at home, you can store them on a portable hard drive or email them to yourself. There will be no course reader.
Over the course of the quarter, I will also forward links to newspaper and magazine articles on issues related to the topics of the course. Please read these articles. If you come across any articles in the news on topics related to the course, including population, family change, and inequality, please send me the links and I may forward them to the class. China is changing rapidly and in many cases the scholarly literature is somewhat behind developments there.
OPTIONAL (RECOMMENDED) TEXTS
These are highly readable non-academic works of fiction and non-fiction that are useful accompaniments to the course. They vividly issue many of the key issues of the course.
Chang, Leslie. 2008. Factory Girls: From Village to City in a Changing China. Spiegel and Grau.
Hessler, Peter. 2001. River Town: Two Years on the Yangtze. Harper.
Hessler, Peter. 2006. Oracle Bones. Harper.
Pomfret, John. 2006. Chinese Lessons. Henry Holt.
Qiu Xiaolong. 2003. Death of a Red Heroine. Soho Press. (Any of Xiaolong Qiu’s Inspector Chen mysteries are worth reading. Of the recent ones, Don’t Cry, Tai Lake may be most useful because of the focus on environmental degradation.)
Sheng Keyi. 2012. Northern Girls. Life Goes On. e-penguin. (Translation of 北妹 by 盛可以). Story of migrant girls from Hunan going to work in Shenzhen.
Ba Jin’s novel Family (家) is worth reading as a portrayal and critique of the traditional Chinese family in the early twentieth century.
READ ALL OF THE FOLLOWING CAREFULLY AND MAKE SURE YOU UNDERSTAND IT
Scale: 96.7 A+, 93.3 A, 90.0 A-, 86.7 B+ and so forth. There is no curve. Your grade depends solely on your performance. Scores will be available at MyUCLA as they are entered.
Final project – 15%
A research paper on a topic related to the content of the class will be due on Friday of 10th week. You may select the topic, but I have to approve it. As one of your assignments during the quarter, you will be required to write a brief proposal for your paper that specifies your topic and the sources that you plan to use. The final project should be 5-7 single-spaced typed pages of text, plus references, tables and figures. The final project may either be a literature review on a specific topic of interest, or a research project involving collection and analysis of qualitative or quantitative data.
The final project will be due on Friday of week 10.
Lecture Attendance and Participation (recorded via i>clicker) – 4%
Starting in week 2, participation in lecture will be recorded through i?clicker responses to anonymous polls. To receive credit for attending a lecture, you must respond to all i>clicker polls that day, or all except one. For example, if I have three i>clicker polls in one lecture, you must participate in at least two of them.
You are automatically excused from two lectures over the course of the quarter. In other words, if you miss one or two lectures during the quarter, you don’t need to ask me to be excused for them, as long as those are the only lectures you miss. The lectures will automatically be excluded from the calculation of your participation. If you miss more than two lectures, and want to be excused for those additional missing lectures, you will also have to document your reason for missing the two lectures. In other words, you don’t get two ‘free’ absences, after which you begin documenting absences. If you miss more than two lectures, and want the excess absences excused, you also need to provide documentation for the first two lectures.
Completion of online class evaluation – 1%
At the end of the quarter, before I submit grades, I will receive a list of names of students who have completed the online class evaluation. I won’t see the evaluation summary report until after I have turned in grades, and obviously, I will not never any individual responses. Everyone who has completed the online class evaluation will receive credit for it.
Essays/assignments – 55%
There will be 5-7 short essays or assignments on topics related to the lectures and readings. These will be weighted equally.
Essays will be 600-800, unless otherwise specified. Prompts for essays will be posted on the announcements section of the class web page.
Essays will be graded on a 100 point scale. Late essays will be penalized at the rate of 2 points per day. Late penalties should only have a material effect on your final grade if you repeatedly turn in assignments late.
Spelling errors, incorrect or inconsistent word usage, incoherent writing, run-on sentences and other typographical and grammatical errors will all be penalized. You are strongly encouraged to make use of the spell-checker that is no doubt already part of the software you are using for word processing. You should also make use of a grammar checker such as Grammatik. Microsoft Word, and many other packages, now include one.
Your essays must demonstrate that you have read all of the assigned material and paid attention in lecture. Failure to demonstrate a careful reading of the assigned material will be penalized. Essays must also respond to the prompt. Off-topic essays will be severely penalized, no matter how well written.
Please do not use unusual fonts, line spacing, or other special effects. Essays outside the word range may be penalized, at my discretion. The penalty will depend on how far out of bounds the essay is. Do not worry if your essay slightly exceeds the recommended upper limit on length.
Mid-term – 10%
The in-class midterm will consist of multiple choice or short answer questions. It will be open book and open note. Electronic devices are allowed, but must be in airplane mode. In other words, they may not be connected to the internet.
Final – 15%
The final will consist of multiple choice or short answer questions. It will be open book and open note. Electronic devices are allowed, but must be in airplane mode. In other words, they may not be connected to the internet. The day and time of the final is assigned by the Registrar, and will be available to you at MyUCLA as soon as it has been decided. Please do not ask me the date and time of the final. If you miss the final because you were confused about the date and time, you will receive a zero.
Proposing midterm or final questions
I encourage students to propose questions to be included in the midterm or final.
For every question that you propose for an exam that complies with the guidelines and looks like a serious effort, I will apply 1 point of extra credit to your score on the exam. So for example if you had 60 out of 75 on the exam, and had proposed at least 2 questions where it looked to me like you made a serious effort, I will add 2, for a total of 62 out of 75.
For every question you propose that I actually use on the exam, I will give you up to 3 points of extra credit, to be applied to your score on the exam. Note that this is not cumulative with the extra credit for proposing a question. If you propose a question and I use it, you get 3 points, not 3+1=4.
Extra credit is capped at 10 points per exam, so for example if I use 4 of your questions, you only get 9 points. I may edit your questions before adding them to the exam. Whether or not you receive 3 points will depend on how much work I need to do to make your question usable. If I use your question without modification, or with only slight modification to correct typos, you’ll get the full 3 points. If I have to do more substantial rewriting, you’ll get fewer points.
In general I am looking for questions that can be answered without much trouble by someone who has been paying attention in class, has made a serious effort to do the reading, and has been completing the assignments. I don’t want questions that are so easy that someone who had not attended lecture could answer them by searching the slides. Nor do I want questions that are so difficult that they can’t be answered by anyone who hasn’t memorized the assign reading in its entirety.
I will create a ‘survey’ at the course website for you to propose your questions. For a proposed question to be counted, you will need to provide the question, five possible responses, and then indicate and explain the correct response. Please do not email questions to me, or post them to the discussion board.
We will be using i>clickers this quarter to test comprehension, poll the class about opinions, and generally make the class more fun and interactive. You will not be graded on whether you answer questions correctly, but rather the frequency of your participation, as described below.
You can purchase a new or used i>clicker 2 at Ackerman Union for $46 (new) or
considerably less for a used one. You will then need to register the remote. I will add an i>clicker ‘block’ at the Course website where you should be able to register your device. To receive credit for participation, you will have to register your clicker and bring it to each class. If you forget to bring your i>clicker to class, you will not receive credit for participation in that class.
You may not use a clicker registered to another student in class. Neither are you allowed to give your clicker to another student to bring to class and use on your behalf. Any such
cases will be treated as academic dishonesty and referred to the Dean of Students.
I assume there may be some technical problems in the first week, thus assignment of credit based on i>clickr participation will begin in the second week of class.
Based on past experience, I strongly advise against relying on web>clicker as an alternative to i>clicker. WiFi access and mobile phone data service is highly unreliable. If you choose to use web>clicker, but are unable to participate in one or more lectures because of connectivity problems, you will not receive credit for those lectures.
Submitting written work
Submit essays and the final project via TurnItIn. You will find a link to TurnItIn on MyUCLA. You are advised to prepare your essay in a word processor, save it, and then paste it into the TurnItIn window to send it. Either that or upload a file at the TurnItIn website. Keep a copy where you can access it in case there is any question about the success of the upload to TurnItIn. Remember to save your work frequently. Software and hardware problems that cause your work to vanish after you have completed it but before you have had a chance to send it are not acceptable as excuses for turning in late work. If TurnItIn is inaccessible, email a copy of your essay to me before the deadline so that I have a record that you completed it on time, then try TurnItIn again later.Please include the title of your essay as the first line of the essay you upload to Turnitin.
The written work you submit each week must be your own. Unattributed use of the work of others is plagiarism, and is not acceptable. If you do feel the need to include text from another source, set it off in quotes and include a proper citation. If you have any questions about how to attribute sources, how to use quotations, etc., ASK! Do not put yourself in jeopardy by submitting an essay that includes material that appears to be plagiarized. I immediately forward to the Dean any essays that appear to contain material that is not original. Keep in mind that I have complete files of every essay submitted in this class since I began teaching it and electronically compare essays with those submitted in previous years.Here are a variety of resources that should help clarify what constitutes plagiarism, and how to avoid it:
If you discuss the assignments with other students, or otherwise work together, be mindful of the boundary between collaboration and academic dishonesty. Again, the work you turn in must be your own, and reflect that you completed the assignment on your own. Assignments that have an unusually high degree of similarity to each other will be turned over to the Dean’s office for investigation.
In general, I prefer you to paraphrase, not quote. By successfully paraphrasing, you demonstrate your understanding of the material. By providing quotations, you just demonstrate that you can type. If your essay has too many quotations, it will be penalized.If you make a claim or assertion that is not clearly based on material from lecture or the reading, and the validity of it is not self-evident, you must provide evidence to back it up, in the form of a citation or a brief argument. If you can’t do that, you at least must clarify that what you are saying represents a personal opinion by prefacing the claim with “I believe that…” or something equivalent.
Announcements will be made via the class web page, and all assignments posted there. You are responsible for checking the web page frequently.If you have an inquiry the answer to which you think would be of general interest to the class, please post it to the discussion board. Thus questions about grading policies, due dates, assignments, lecture material, and so forth should all go to the discussion board. If you contact me with a question that I believe should be posted to the discussion board, I will tell you to post it there, and then answer it there.
The best way to reach me is via email. If you write to me, you must include “181B” somewhere in the subject line so that the message is filtered properly and comes to my attention in a timely fashion. Again, it is not necessary to include the quotation marks. Please identify yourself by name in your email, and if your questions relate to grades, please include your UID.
I will leave some time at the end of each lecture for questions and discussion. Because the class is large and time is limited, if you have additional questions about the readings or the content of the lectures, please post them to the discussion board. I will do my best to respond promptly. Your classmates are also encouraged to respond.
I consider detailed questions about specific historical events and personalities more suited for a history or political science class, not a sociology class. In most cases I tend to prefer they be posted to the discussion board or asked in person during office hours, not raised in class.
You are always welcome to come to my office. I will be there during office hours, and am also available by appointment.
Overview and summary of policies
Why study Chinese society?
China as an object of study in the social sciences
Historical origins of distinguish features of contemporary Chinese society
Lee and Wang, Chapters 1 and 2.
Chinese population in the past
How do we study China’s population history? Sources and methods.
Fertility and reproduction before the 20th century
Lee and Wang, Chapters 3-6Campbell, Cameron and James Lee. 2002 (publ. 2006). “State views and local views of population: Linking and comparing genealogies and household registers in Liaoning, 1749-1909.” History and Computing. 14(1+2):9-29. [LINK]
Essay 1, to be submitted Friday via TurnItin: Please write an essay explaining why you are taking the class, summarizing your previous coursework, work, or other experiences related to China, and specifying what topics in the syllabus you are most interested in learning more about, and why.
Contrasts with the west. Was China really in a Malthusian trap before the 20th century?
Lee and Wang, Chapters 7-9
Fertility change after 1949, the Later-Longer-Fewer and One-Child Policies
Yong Cai. 2010. “Social Forces behind China’s below Replacement Fertility: Government Policy or Socioeconomic Development.” Population and Development Review. 36(3):419-440. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1728-4457.2010.00341.x/abstract
Gu Baochang, Wang Feng, Guo Zhigang, and Zhang Erli. 2007. “China’s local and national fertility policies at the end of the twentieth century.” Population and Development Review. 33(1):129-148. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1728-4457.2007.00161.x/abstract
Goodkind, Daniel. 2011. “Child underreporting, fertility, and sex ratios imbalance in China.” Demography. 48(1): 291-316. http://www.springerlink.com/content/j730l552383u2860/
Suggested, not required
Coale, Ansley and Judith Banister. 1994. “Five decades of missing females in China.” Demography. 31(3): 459–479. http://www.springerlink.com/content/d2388757126251wl/
Cai Yong and William Lavely. 2003. “China’s missing girls: Numerical estimates and effects on population growth.” The China Review. 3(2):13-29. http://www.chineseupress.com/promotion/China%20Review/vol3_2_files/2.%20Y-Cai.pdf
Ebenstein, Avraham. 2010. “The `Missing Girls of China and the Unintended Consequences of the One Child Policy.” The Journal of Human Resources. 45(1):87-115. http://jhr.uwpress.org/content/45/1/87.full.pdf
Lavely, William. 1986. “Age Patterns of Chinese Marital Fertility, 1950-1981.” Demography. 28(3):419-434. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2061439
Lavely, William and Ronald Freeman. 1990. “The Origins of the Chinese Fertility Decline” Demography. 27(3):357-367 http://www.jstor.org/stable/2061373
Recent Trends in Fertility, and Prospects for the Future
What is China’s fertility rate?
The debate over the One-Child Policy
Consequences of imbalanced sex ratios
Low fertility and future population aging
Wang Feng. 2011. “The Future of a Demographic Overachiever: Long-Term Implications of the Demographic Transition in China.” Population and Development Review. 37(S1):173-190. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1728-4457.2011.00383.x/abstract
Zheng Zhenzhen, Yong Cai, Wang Feng and Gu Baochang. 2009. “Below-replacement fertility and childbearing intention in Jiangsu province, China”. Asian Population Studies. 5(3):329-347. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17441730903351701
Zhongwei Zhao and Wei Chen. 2011. “China’s far below-replacement fertility and its long-term impact: Comments on the preliminary results of the 2010 census.” Demographic Research. 25(26): 819-836. http://www.demographic-research.org/Volumes/Vol25/26/25-26.pdf
Suggested, not required
Attané, Isabelle. 2006. “The Demographic Impact of a Female Deficit in China, 2000-2050.” Population and Development Review. 32(4):755-770. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1728-4457.2006.00149.x/abstract
Cai Yong. 2008. “An assessment of China’s fertility level using the variable-r method.” Demography. 45(2): 271-281. http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/demography/v045/45.2.cai.html
Guilmoto, Christophe. 2012. “Skewed Sex Ratios at Birth and Future Marriage Squeeze in China and India, 2005-2100.” Demography. 49:77-100. http://www.springerlink.com/content/98h134228387130p/
Morgan, S. Philip, Guo Zhigang, and Sarah R. Hayford. 2009. “China’s below-replacement fertility: Recent trends and future prospects.” Population and Development Review. 35(3):605-629. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1728-4457.2009.00298.x/abstract
Wang Feng. 2005. “Can China afford to continue its one‐child policy?” Asia Pacific Issues. 77: 1‐12. Honolulu: the East‐West Center. http://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/handle/10125/3796
Wang Feng and Andrew Mason. 2007. “Population aging in China: Challenges, opportunities, and institutions.” In Zhongwei Zhao and Fei Guo eds. Transition and Change: China’s Population at the Turn of the Twenty‐First Century. Oxford University Press, 177‐196.
Fan, Cindy, Mingjie Sun, Siqi Zheng. 2011. “Migration and split households: a comparison of sole, couple, and family migrants in Beijing, China.” Environment and Planning. 43: 2164-2185. http://www.envplan.com/epa/fulltext/a43/a44128.pdf
Park, Albert and Deven Wang. 2010. “Migration and urban poverty and inequality in China.” China Economic Journal. 3(1):49-67. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17538963.2010.487351
Suggested, not required
Fan, C. Cindy, and Youqin Huang. 1998. “Waves of Rural Brides: Female Marriage Migration in China.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 88(2):227–251. http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/2564209
Bo Wen et al. 2004. “Genetic evidence supports demic diffusion of Han culture.” Nature. 431:302-305. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v431/n7006/abs/nature02878.html
Chen Shujuo. 2009. “How Han are Taiwanese Han? Genetic inference of Plains Indigenous ancestry among Taiwanese Han and its implications for Taiwan identity.” PhD Dissertation, Stanford University, AAT 3343568.
Goodkind, Daniel. 2002. “China’s Floating Population: Data, Definitions, and Recent Findings.” Urban Studies. 39(12):2237-2250.
Li, Rose Maria. 1989. “Migration to China’s Northern Frontier.” Population and Development Review. 15(3):503-538
Essay 2, to be submitted Friday via TurnItIn: What have the major implications of the One-Child Policy been for Chinese population and society? Which of these do you consider the most important, and why? Would you change the policy? If so, how? Your essay must demonstrate that you have done the assigned reading.
Fan, Cindy. 2002. “The Elite, the Natives, and the Outsiders: Migration and Labor Market Segmentation in Urban China.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 92(1):103-124. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1467-8306.00282
Liang Zai and Yiu Por Chen. 2007. “The educational consequences of migration for children in China.” Social Science Research. 36(1):28-47. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0049089X05000475
Lu Yao and Zhou Hao. 2013. “Academic Achievement and Loneliness of Migrant Children in China: School Segregation and Segmented Assimilation.” Comparative Education Review. 57(1):85-116. http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/667790
Family, Household, Marriage and Kinship
Campbell, Cameron and James Lee. 2011. “Kinship and the Long-term Persistence of Inequality in Liaoning, 1749-2005.” Chinese Sociological Review. 44(1):71-103. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23596557
Chen Shuang, Cameron Campbell, and James Lee. 2008. “Categorical Inequality and Gender Difference: Marriage and Remarriage in Northeast China, 1749-1912.” https://moodle2.sscnet.ucla.edu/mod/resource/view.php?id=19156
Family life since 1949
Whyte, Martin K. 2005. “Continuity and change in urban family life.” The China Journal. 53:9-33. http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/20065990
Yu Xie and Haiyan Zhu. 2009. “Do Sons or Daughters Give More Money to Parents in Urban China?” Journal of Marriage and the Family. 71(1):174-186. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2008.00588.x/full
Yan Yunxiang, Private Life Under Socialism
Essay 3, to be submitted Friday via TurnItIn: Please read and discuss Peter Hessler’s Country Driving. What aspects of contemporary Chinese society did you find most surprising or interesting? Did you see any connections to the material covered in the first half of class?
MIDTERM (First lecture of the week)
Assignment: On Friday, please submit a 1-2 paragraph description (150-200 words or so) of your plans for your final project via TurnItIn. Identify your topic and the sources you will use. If you will be carrying out analysis of data, please describe the data and the methods you will use.
Gender and sexuality
Mate choice, marriage, and divorce in contemporary China
The rise of divorce
Han Hongyun. 2010. “Trends in educational assortative marriage in China from 1970 to 2000.” Demography Research. 22(24):733-770. http://www.demographic-research.org/volumes/vol22/24/22-24.pdf
Xu, X. and Whyte, Martin K. 1990. “Love matches and arranged marriages: A Chinese replication.” Journal of Marriage and the Family. 52(3): 709-722. http://www.jstor.org/stable/352936
Suggested, not required:
Parish, William L., Edward O. Laumann, and Sanyu A. Mojola. 2007. “Sexual behavior in China: Trends and comparisons.” Population and Development Review. 33(4):729-756.
Discussion: Topics for Final Projects. Please be prepared to discuss some of your ideas for your final project.
Essay 4, to be submitted Friday via TurnItIn: Do you expect marriage patterns and intergenerational relations in China to continue changing, and if so, how? Please demonstrate familiarity with the assigned reading.
Stratification and inequality
Historical context and patterns
The role of family and kin groups
The influence of the examination system
Campbell, Cameron and James Lee. 2008 “Kinship, Employment and Marriage: The Importance of Kin Networks for Young Adult Males in Qing Liaoning.” Social Science History. 32(2):175-214. [LINK]
Inequality before the Reform era
The economic reform era: 80s and 90s
Consequences of market transition
Recent trends in inequality
Walder, Andrew G., Bobai Li and Donald J. Treiman. 2000. Politics and Life Chances in a State Socialist Regime: Dual Career Paths into the Urban Chinese Elite, 1949 to 1996. American Sociological Review. 65(2):191-209. [LINK]
Walder, Andrew G. 1995. Career Mobility and the Communist Political Order. American Sociological Review. 60(3):309-328. [LINK]
Nee, Victor. 1996. “The emergence of a market society: Changing mechanisms of stratification in China.” American Journal of Sociology. 101(4):908-949. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2782234
ZHOU Xueguang. 2000. “Economic transformation and income inequality in urban China: evidence from panel data.” American Journal of Sociology. 105(4):1135-1174. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3003890
Suggested but not required
BIAN Yanjie and John Logan. 1996. “Market transition and the persistence of power: the changing stratification system in urban China.” American Sociological Review. 61(5):739-758. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2096451
XIE Yu and Emily Hannum. 1996. “Regional variation in earnings inequality in reform-era urban China.” American Journal of Sociology. 101:950-92. http://www.jstor.org/stable/278223518 Inequality and the household registration system (hukou)WU Xiaogang and Donald J. Treiman. 2007. “Inequality and Equality under Chinese Socialism: The Hukou System and Intergenerational Occupational Mobility.” American Journal of Sociology. 113(2):415-45. http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/pdf/10.1086/518905
WU Xiaogang and Donald J. Treiman. 2004. “The Household Registration System and Social Stratification in China, 1955-1996.” Demography. 41(2):363-384. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1515171
Essay 5, to be submitted Friday via TurnItin: Please select one of the research articles listed for Week 8 or 9 and write a review of it. Identify the key hypotheses. Describe the data and methods that the author(s) used. Are you convinced by the findings? If you were redoing the study, how would you improve on it?
Educational expansion after 1949
DENG Zhong and Donald J. Treiman. 1997. “The impact of the cultural revolution on trends in educational attainment in the People’s Republic of China.” American Journal of Sociology. 103(2):391-428. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2782995Zhou Xueguang, Phyllis Moen, and Nancy B. Tuma. 1998. “Educational stratification in urban China: 1949-1994.” Sociology of Education. 71:199-222. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2673202
20 Elite education: contrasts with the WestThe contemporary examination system