Abstract As Hong Kong topographical poetry is often considered a representation of the hectic aspects of an urban lifestyle, readers usually appreciate the poems with a preconceived image of Hong Kong, the city. In contrast to the common approach that regards city as a reflection of ideologies and conflicts, this research takes topographical poetry as lived experiences of poets, in order to probe into a direct and personal realm of humans and place relationship. Hence, theories in the field of human geography which focus on the concept of space and place will be applied to a large extent. As a whole, this thesis argues that a place comes into being only when it is “lived” and endowed with poet’s experience, value and emotion. Through an in-depth study of topographical poems in three chapters, this thesis sketches the development of the “sense of place” among Hong Kong poets. The analysis of the early twentieth century topographical poetry in Chapter Two shows that the poets tend to keep a far distance from the milieu and hold a visitor’s perspective, and there is a prevalent use of ideology and social criticism. Chapter Three delineates the significant changes topographical poetry has gone through since the 1950s. The slackening of social criticism together with the rise of personal perspectives helps to shape a place vividly in great detail. The close reading of poetry depicting the rural area in Chapter Four reveals the complex nature of the countryside―it is a source of melancholy in the course of development while it also provides spiritual nourishment for city dwellers. Through the analysis of sense of distance, change of perspective, inclusion of details, and engagement of human senses, this thesis figures out the way a solid and sensuous place has gradually emerged in Hong Kong topographical poetry.
Abstract: This thesis investigates the critic and writer Liu Zaifu’s prose and his theoretical construction after he began his exilic experience in 1989. By tracing Liu’s changing attitudes towards “exile”, as well as his perennial deliberations or rethinking on the critical issue of “subjectivity in literature”, the present thesis seeks to examine Liu’s poetics of wandering and his spiritual trajectory with an inward tendency. It mainly addresses two questions tied to this introspective turn manifested in his ten volumes of prose and his critical essays and books written throughout his drifting life. The first is how he redefines “home” and “state” in his exile, transcending the restrictive categories of the terms. And the second is how he revised his recognitions of the relationship between “self” and “other”, “inner self” and “material self” and “real self” and “false self”. By investigating such topics through texts analysis, I argue that Liu Zaifu turns his physical exile into a permanent, internal self-exile, and thus, his poetics of wandering reveals a metaphysical meaning beyond its geographical and historical ones, engaging with the legacy of Zhuangzi and Chan Buddhism. In specific, a new, cultural homeland is unexpectedly located in Liu’s mind, through a way of transcending the painful restrictions of his existence to experience a sense of home-within-homelessness. Meanwhile, in Liu’s theoretical reconstruction of “inter-subjectivity” and “inner inter-subjectivity” in the exilic condition, he intervenes into the question of “revolutions” and “enlightenment”. By analyzing his transition from advocating literary subjectivity to realizing the hell of the self, I argue that Liu repudiates the grand narrative of “revolution” and “enlightenment” and provides an “internal perspective”, to explore the transcendental quality of literature. It is in this way that Liu Zaifu attempts to search or reconstruct a literary, individual and transcendental subject, which resonates with the Zen spirit.
本講座旨在介紹佛羅倫斯在十五和十六世紀意大利文藝復興藝術與建築的發展中所擔當的重要角色。 This lecture looks into the significance of Florence in the development of Italian Renaissance art and architecture in the 15th and 16th centuries.